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Ethnicity and Police

By buttonsmommy Jul 03, 2013 1290 Words
Ethnicity and Police
There are numerous reasons why the general image of police is worth measuring. First a comprehension of the usual representation of law enforcement among individuals in a neighborhood supplies a significant indicator of help for the establishment among its government. Requiring knowledge how people as a whole describe law enforcement is a critical first step in increasing connections between law enforcement and communities. This is why neighborhood studies are distinguished factors of the neighborhood policing movement. In addition, standards of public representation of law enforcement can be compared. Producing such representation, establishments can learn whether his or her impression is increasing or decreasing overtime, or whether he or she is held in high regard or lower esteem by individuals who live in a neighborhood compared to other law enforcement officers in other neighborhoods. General versus Specific Measures White and Menke (1982) argue that the inconsistencies in the law enforcement image revealed in public opinion surveys result from questioning formatting. The number of individuals who reside in a community who reported a positive law enforcement image presented general questions ranged from 75% to 80 %. However, decisive replies from about one – sixth to one – half when individuals were given studies. White & Menke (1982:233) assess different universes of meaning and are not simply artifacts of meaningless comparisons of those measures. Factors Influencing the General Image of the Police These parts of the document regard some of the causes shaping the general image of law enforcement. Although it is unfinished several factors believed to sway the general image are the distinct factors of law enforcement that people have not looked over yet. One of the most compelling debates about the general image of law enforcement is how it is shaped by the final consequence. Law enforcement causes for example, crime control, and the methods law enforcement uses to create those results containing fairness and other viewpoints of law enforcement methods (White & Menke, 1982). The processes are covered later in the remaining portion of this document but the focus is on three types of power on the general image of law enforcement: the personal distinguishing traits of people who live in a neighborhood when asked to make an evaluation, the nature of the contract that the citizens has had recently with law enforcement, and mass media portrays of law enforcement and serious offenders (White & Menke, 1982). Race One of the most existing discoveries of opinion polls about law enforcement is White individuals are more happy with law enforcement that other races. This information has been used for the past 40 years, emerging from dozens of surveys in the United States and other areas. An example people who live in a neighborhood are pleased with law enforcement in 12 different areas. In fact, this information was retrieved by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, in 1998, 90% of Whites were pleased with law enforcement compared to the 76% of African Americans, and other races. In addition, in Wisconsin 97% of Whites were pleased with law enforcement whereas 91%of African Americans were satisfied with law enforcement (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1999). Age A large part of information shows a positive relationship between age, and demeanor toward law enforcement. Individuals under the age of 18 show less satisfaction with law enforcement than adults (Brown & Coulter, 1983). In one survey that has not been reported from adolescents, insinuates that age may make a difference when comparing older individuals to adolescents (Hurst & Frank, 2000). However, this is based only on one survey in one city, and another survey reported that senior citizens had a less favorable attitude about law enforcement that adolescents. In other words an adolescent does not care about age those adults but the contentment decreases and increases with the age of the adolescents (Zevit & Rettammel, 1990). Gender The relationship of male or female and satisfaction with law enforcement is unclear. Two surveys conducted noted that males have a more positive attitude than females simply concerning law enforcement. However, another study conducted noted that as a male or female gender made no difference (Hurst & Frank, 2000). Therefore, these two conflicting surveys about gender does not make a difference when it comes to law enforcement but men are known to have a much better attitude toward law enforcement that women (White, 2013). Other Influences Color, how old someone is, male or female are distinctive wavers most familiar with law enforcement. Nonetheless, many researchers found that individuals living in middle - class areas have a much better demeanor with law enforcement. In fact, individuals who use scientific methods do not verify that the differences are different. There are two different aspects of influences. One is that individuals have different distinguishing traits and dealings with law enforcement. Adolescents are more likely to be impartial for reasons of constantly pulled over, searched, given a ticket, placed under arrest, and given a warning more than senior citizens (Hindlelang, 1974). Two individuals who come from different backgrounds have different opinions on law enforcement and different ways of looking at the events (Hindlenag, 1974). Neighborhood Effects African Americans and Whites descriptions are similar but African Americans have more selfish motives toward law enforcement for the reason African Americans are known to live in the slums or poor areas where violent crimes take place. (Brown & Coulter, 1983) found that individuals who reside in an area rate the process more generally, and seem to be more satisfied with law enforcement but. However, (Albrecht & Green, 1977) found different demeanors are stronger when it comes to judges, attorneys, courts, and the legal system. Demeanors towards law enforcement are also related to the degree of involvement in the political system (Albrecht & Green, 1977). Dena’s Opinion From the information spoken of in this document individuals who are African American or White both have similar but different opinions of law enforcement depending on the area the individual resides also puts a different outlook on how each race views law enforcement because African Americans are known to live in the slums or poor areas compared to the White individuals who reside in middle - class areas. Age also has some aspects in this because adolescents are compared to senior citizens. None of these should make a difference all people should be treated equally regardless of what race, gender, age, and neighborhood he or she resides in and law enforcement is to be respected (White, 2013). In Conclusion, there are several factors spoken of in this document that illustrates African Americans and Whites and how these two races view law enforcement. Age, Gender, Race, Social – economic- statutes, neighborhood effects, and other influences all play a major role on how individuals look at law enforcement. However, in some cases African Americans are pulled over, searched, cited, arrested, and given warnings more than senior citizens. Therefore, one can tell that in law enforcement there is a difference on how individuals are treated.

References
Albrecht, S., & Green, M. (1977). "Attitudes Toward the Police and the Larger Attitude Complex: Implications for Police- Community Relationships. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 15(), 67-86. Brown, K. & Coulter, P.B. (1983, January - February) ‘'Subjective and Objective Measures of Police Delivery" Public Administration Review, (), Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. (1999). Criminal Victimization and Perceptions of Policing, 22(), Hindeland, R.J. (1994) “Citizens Preference and Perceptions Concerning Police Pursuit Policies” Journal of Criminal Justice 22 () Hurst. Y.G., & Frank, J. (2000) “How Kids View Cops: The Nature of Juvenile Attitudes Toward the Police” Journal of Criminal Justice 28(), White, D. (2013) White, M.F., & Menke, B.A. (1982) On Assessing the Mood of the Public Toward the Police Some Conceptual Issues: Journal of Criminal Justice 10(), Zevit, R.G., & Rettammel, R.J. (1990) “Elderly Attitudes about Police Services” American Journal of Police 9(),

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