Nonwestern Literature

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Modern literature does not show the extent to which literature has come. Medieval forms of literature reflected an unprecedented level of purity and originality. A study of the similarities and dissimilarities between cultures reveals the exchange of ideology that occurred many centuries ago. This gives weight to the assertion that modern forms of literature from different regions of the world once shared certain characteristics. It should not get assumed that the different forms of literature arose from the same inspiration. Rather, the varying types of literature occurred separately. However, due to improvements in technology and communication, forms of literature have become similar over time. An in-depth look at Egyptian, Indian, and Chinese literatures highlights this clearly. China and India, as countries from the East, have a winding, rich, and spectacular literary tradition. The exchange of literary accomplishments between the two nations has never ceased even until modern times. The primary groundwork for such an exchange became established through the introduction of Buddhism into China. As a result of this introduction, Indian literature began imparting nourishment to its Chinese counterpart. Thus, Chinese literature adopted plenty of influences from Indian literature. Resulting effects on Chinese literature have manifested themselves in aspects of aesthetic tendency, form, subject, rhetoric and vocabulary. In ancient times, Buddhism served as the key medium for Chinese-Indian literary exchanges. Chinese literature has become more and more influenced by Indian literature in recent times due to the assimilation of Buddhist influences. Nevertheless, the extent and nature of the literary exchange between India and China has become two-sided and complementary in recent times. There exist similarities and differences between Chinese and Indian literature. In both Chinese and Indian literature, the form of literature gets classified as primarily oral. In both Chinese and Indian literatures, extensive written forms of literature appeared in later periods compared to the emergence of oral forms of literature. In both Chinese and Indian literature, the emergence of written forms of literature arose due to the spread of literacy programs pioneered by the ruling authorities in both countries. Also, both Indian and Chinese literatures have different forms of literature contributing to the overall state of literature in the respective countries. Moreover, both Indian and Chinese literatures have experienced changes due to modern influences from the western world. On the other hand, a few differences arise between Chinese and Indian literature. Chinese literature has always gotten expression through only one language. This has remained true for the over 3000 years which the Chinese civilization has existed. On the contrary, Indian literature has experienced segmentation due to the presence of numerous languages within India. The Indian culture has officially recognized 22 languages and among these languages, 21 of them have establishes their own unique forms of literature. Indian literature has gotten influence from the various traditions that have governed over the country. Throughout its history, various family traditions have dictated the nature of ownership over the country. In turn, the varying styles of ownership have had an unmistakable effect on the types of literature. Thus, different ownership periods as demarcated by family traditions have different kinds of literature. Conversely, various dynasties throughout the whole period of its sovereign existence have ruled China. This has led to the classification of types of literature based on the particular dynasty that ruled the country at the time of the emergence of the literature. These dynasties include Zhou, Qin, Han, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing. During the existence of all these dynasties, various forms of literature have arisen. For instance, early woodblock...
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